[IIOE2-EP03] Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)

Lead investigator and other key participant(s):

  1. Dr. M. Ravichandran, INCOIS, Hyderabad, India

Period of Project: 2009-continuing

Brief description of the Project:

IndOOS ("Integrated Indian Ocean Observing System") is a multi-platform long-term observing system which consist of surface mooring array, ARGO floats, surface drifting buoys, tide gauges, Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS)-based XBT/XCTD sections and satellite measurements. The system is designed to provide high-frequency near-real time climate-related observations, serving the needs of climate research, forecasting and services. Satellite Remote Sensing provides maps of surface variables such as temperature, sea surface height, sea surface winds, sea surface salinity and ocean colour, as well as several meteorological input parameters for estimating air-sea momentum, heat and freshwater fluxes.

The main platform for insitu observations in the tropical IO is the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction ("RAMA") which is similar to the TAO/TRITON array in the pacific and PIRATA array in the Atlantic Ocean. The RAMA Array consists of a total of 46 moorings, of which 38 are ATLAS/TRITON-type surface moorings. Eight of these surface moorings are surface flux reference sites, with enhanced flux and sub-surface ocean measurements. The surface mooring system can measure temperature and salinity profiles from the surface down to 500 m depth as well as the surface meteorological variables, and the observed data are transmitted in real-time via ARGOS satellites. In addition to these surface buoys, there are four sub-surface ADCP moorings along the equator and one near the coast of Java to observe the current profiles in the upper ocean, and three deep current-meter moorings with ADCPs in the central and eastern Equatorial regions. Out of the 46 moorings, 3 moorings are in the Bay of Bengal since 2009.

Region of study

Northern part of Bay of Bengal.